Discontinuity in energy and matter Although nature abhors vacuum, neither matter nor energy are continuous. Visible spaces exist; apparently empty among the different “pieces” of them. And this is true in the microscopical as in the macroscopical world. Examples: -Photons: little bundles or “quanta” of light (light is then, lumpiness energy). -Graviton: smallest bundles of the gravitational force field. -ℏ: Planck constant is the fundamental parameter in Quantum Mechanics. It determines the size of the discrete units of different measures, into which the microscopic world is divided. Space and time are not continuous. It is impossible to access distances shorter than λ_p (approx. 1.616x10^-33 cm) and in consequence, the minimum fraction of time is approx. 5.39x10^-44 s. All matter (and energy) in the macrocosmos, as in the microcosmos, have a sequence of concentration and “empty” space. An atom for example, has more than 99.9% of its mass inside a nucleus (center); with a radius that is 10^-5 less than the size of atom. The electrons revolve around the nucleus at velocities near to the speed of light, “filling” the space with electromagnetic energy that seems as solid chunks of matter. Electrons revolve around the nucleus in orbitals. Planets revolve around the sun in orbits, all of them mathematically constituted. Between orbitals and orbits it is impossible for electrons or planets to exist. The same rule applies even as we go larger into outer space or smaller into the inner space. This is true in the microscosmos as well as in the macrocosmos. But, what will happen farther away into our Universe? As we explained before, after the end of our Universe, a fractal dimension will exist until we arrive to the four spatial dimensional Universe. In this fractal space, 3~4, it is impossible to form a Universe; and so, this is a state of chaotic evolution, that we named Big Crush. But what will happen with a dimensional modulus of 8 Universes (7+1)? We mentioned before that the dimensional modulus is formed, not for 8 dimensions, but for 28, because a Universe has the same footing within its dimensions, but they are completely different among other universes. And so, we add each dimension from each universe: 0+1+2+3+4+5+6+7=28. The dimensions among them have a big difference, and it is only possible to reduce it using logarithmical measures. A dimensional modulus, in arithmetical measures, has an enormous “empty” space among dimensional Universes, because the difference between one dimension with the next consecutive is 8.52x10^10. The minimum length of the Universe of Strings (1+1) is 3.83x10^65 times bigger than that of the Universe of 7-sphere (7+1) particles. It is impossible to draw them both in a sheet of paper at least without using logarithmical measures. But we can imagine that between a Universe and the next, there is an enormous “empty” space; and also, inside the “sub-Planck” spaces in any Universe. We wrote “empty” because the modulus is filled with gravitational energy, measuredly and different in any Universe, but also, with “virtual particles of the next dimension. The energy among Universes is gravitational because the gravitational force is the only force that unites different classes of dimensional Universes in a spatial modulus; and we suppose it unites different moduli in a dimensional package; and different packages in a dimensional cluster; and so on successively. This tendency to cofinity needs to end, and a deeper study is necessary. As we said before, gravity is the only force between dimensional Universes, but not the feeble normal gravity we know. It is a kind of hypergravity (we didnt name it supergravity in order to avoid the confusion with an old and discarded theory). For that reason, in the beginning or in the end of any Universe, gravity is united with the other forces, and it has a considerable strength. It acts with the appearance of a Higgs gravitational boson, at the very beginning of any Big Bang and any Big Crunch. It is separated from the other forces almost immediately; but in the Big Crush, the force acts permanently united, but the time here is even more limited.

Posted on: Thu, 07 Aug 2014 19:06:37 +0000

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